در پنجمین اجلاس زنان بازرگان کشورهای اسلامی
»Fifth Forum for Businesswomen in Islamic Countries
۵BWF ( Cairo ۲۲-۲۴ April ۲۰۱۰)
In the name of the God the Compassionate and the Merciful
* Islamic republic of Iran, is a country in Central Eurasia, located on the north-eastern shore of the Persian Gulf.
* The ۱۸th largest country in the world in terms of area at ۱,۶۴۸,۱۹۵km.
* Iran has a population of over seventy million.
* The presence of Iranian women in economic activities and management of economic institutes is on increasing.
* There are ۴۵۰۰ women who have commercial card around the country, occupy trade and manufacturing posts which ۲۵۰۰ of them are based in Tehran.
* The first woman economic society has been established officially by the name of "Business Woman Council" in Tehran chamber of commerce in January ۲۰۰۷.
* Aiming to promote women place in economic and commercial affairs, exchange of information and bilateral cooperation with a business woman in Muslim countries.
* The global economic society reported the rate of Iranian women participation in labor force ۴۲% in ۲۰۰۸.
* According to International labor Organization (ILO) only ۱۳% of Iranian women with higher education have a job.
* The situation of woman in today's society is being uttered more than any time which means the odd limitations for woman have been removed and they can be involved in the society more than ever.
* Iranian females dedicate ۶۵% of the capacities in universities.
* Entrepreneurship can be the best solution for women unemployment.
* When analyzing the effecting elements of socioeconomic development we should concentrate on human resources and expertise, so finding a solution for women unemployment is necessary.
* ۶.۳۱% percent of employed women are employed in agriculture.
* ۸.۳۱% in industry
* ۴.۲۳% in industrial activities and
* ۶.۳۶% in services sector.
* ۲۴% of employed women occupy the training activities and
* ۸.۸% in medical care.
Policy makers have recognized that creative women entrepreneurship needs to be encouraged through appropriate policies that foster entrepreneurship, innovation, and technological development. Iran like some countries has introduced science parks in the hope that the provision of infrastructure will spark the development of high-tech ventures with new innovations and inventions that can become global products and services. Also, it can cause:
* Embracing creativity and innovation;
* An entrepreneur’s products or services can bring about business growth;
* Productivity improvement;
* Job and wealth creation;
* An enhanced image for the economy; and
* A better quality of life for all.
Iran `s Scenario:
The activities of ICCIM are consistent with the following values:
* Holding seminars, Web-Seminars and Conferences
* Journal publication;
* Technology transfer and information exchange through dispatching and receiving the SME women owners delegations to/from other countries;
* Participating of women entrepreneurs in international events;
* Participating in national and international trade fairs and holding national and international fairs to present the products made by women entrepreneurs;
* Encourage the creation of an entrepreneurial culture in the country among the women;
* Help to establish women related NGOs.
In government level:
Governments could assist in providing conducive environments for the creation of innovation and the adoption of technology. In many countries, governments could provide technology upgrading incentive schemes and financing schemes to ease cash flows or increase capital for R&D activities within enterprises. Governments may pass laws or guidelines to protect SMEs from intellectual property rights abuses. This will encourage small businesses to innovate and reinvent. The main objective of government policies on these issues is a substantial net increase in the level of high-quality R&D in enterprises and to ensure an integrated and unified approach to research-related activities. These should cover industrial R&D, process development and innovation, and technology acquisition.
Communication: Organizations should be encouraged to promote open channels of communication among all levels of management so that no ideas are brushed aside. Stakeholders could play a significant role in the provision of information and intelligence to enterprises. For example, industrial associations could provide regular updates on changes in government policies and new incentive schemes to enterprises. This would make it easier for enterprise decision makers to utilize government incentive schemes.
Incubators and Mentors: Incubators run by universities and research groups could assist businesses, especially SMEs, to grow in a conducive environment. Researchers, specialists, and consultants should be available to enterprises being incubated. Access to R&D facilities is the main advantage for promising SMEs to be based in incubators. Mentors lend their experience to the incubating enterprises and guide them through potentially disruptive innovation.
Education: Educational institutions could provide the technical know-how and innovation process management skills to senior managers in corporations. Studies have also shown that general education can enhance innovation among women entrepreneurs. The adoption of technologies is more rapid in countries with higher literacy rates. Thus education and academic institutions can play a significant role in the adoption of technology and innovation creation in an economy. Business plan competitions, which incorporate technology adoption and innovation, are a good opportunity to start women would-be entrepreneurs thinking about innovation at an early age.
The main obstacles in women employment
Women's economic participation in social and economic jobs has been highlighted as a socioeconomics phenomenon since the beginning of current century.
Now, the women can work in a wider variety of different jobs and the gender based discrimination has decreased to some extent. For instance the rate of employed women and men are equal in the staff of flight attendant and travel agencies.
In medical companies men and women are working equally. Women work as sales agents in markets and receptionists in hotels or in radio and television. However the status of women employment in Iran likes the other developing countries is not as satisfactory situation and women have less opportunity than men.
At present, efforts are underway to decrease the women unemployment rate, and to solve the women's problems which are considered as a social responsibility. The research and study on the women unemployment and entrepreneurship is rather a new issue in Iran which needs independent studies. The process of creating jobs for women can be discussed in different dimensions and it may be affected by individual, social, cultural and economical factors.
Women have been the focus of attention of all international and national development programmes. Efforts have been directed at empowering them in all fields of activity. Special programmes have been instituted to improve their social and economic status through provision of education, employment, health-care and involvement in social and economic institutions, including cooperatives, cooperative institutions and especially the agricultural cooperatives are the agencies which hold enormous potential for the development of women, and more particularly the rural women.
Social activist, NGOs, Government agencies and corporate sector should play an active role in the transformation of women entrepreneurs and in driving the women to explore entrepreneurial opportunities in small scale industries.
Also, for more Integration, creating a special portal for OIC members, including the women entrepreneurs` information, as well as establishing a common secretariat is recommended.
Seyedeh Fatemeh Moghimi
Head of Delegation of ICCIMAdvisor to president of ICCIM in Women Entrepreneurs Affairs and chairman of business women council of tccim
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